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The Secret behind Google Search

Google runs on a distributed network of thousands of low-cost computers and can therefore carry out fast parallel processing. Parallel processing is a method of computation in which many calculations can be performed simultaneously, significantly speeding up data processing. A search which typically takes less than half a second, is the result of a complex journey that typically makes at least two stops, often thousands of miles apart.


1.) Google creates its own version of internet, using its own programs called google boats, which crawl the web in search of new information. Web sites known to be important and frequently modified are scanned every few minutes. Sites less frequently updated may be scanned every few weeks.

2.) Google boats feed key information from a web page to google’s central network URL. It includes full text of the page, reference to images and other links, Meta data etc.

3.) At the central network the information is indexed. Every word that could be used in a search query is listed along with information referencing websites where the word can be found.

4.) The index is broken in to “shards” and sent to data centers. – Facilities made up of thousands of servers wired together around the world. Because centers may have slightly different versions of the index, depending upon when they received last update. So users in different places may get slightly different result for same search.


When people searches google, they are asking google to find every instance of the term in its index and rank the correspondent pages by its relevance.

1.) The users type a keyword in the search box. Typically it is two or three words. This can make, finding the most relevant results challenging. Also one in 10 queries may be misspelled.

2.) Before processing the keywords, google locate the user’s location using the IP address. It helps google to use the nearest server or data center for processing the keyword. It also helps google to display geographically matching ad words and advertisements.

3.) The query or keywords are sent to central network and redirect to nearest server or data center.

4.) At the data center the search term is run through the index. Matching terms are sent back to the central network. Then to the user with a summery of the web pages called “snippets”.


Google determines which web sites are most relevant to a search term by using its page ranking algorithm or page ranking formula, a formula that weighs more than 200 measurements, such as number of times a keyword or search term appeared on the web page. It also considers the page impressions and the popularity of the site.

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100 keyboard shortcuts

CTRL+C (Copy)
CTRL+X (Cut)
CTRL+V (Paste)
CTRL+Z (Undo)
DELETE (Delete)
SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)
CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
F2 key (Rename the selected item)
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)
CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)
CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)
CTRL+A (Select all)
F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)
ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)
ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)
ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)
Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)
F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
F5 key (Update the active window)
BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
ESC (Cancel the current task)
SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)
Dialog Box Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)
CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)
TAB (Move forward through the options)
SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)
SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
F1 key (Display Help)
F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)
m*cro$oft Natural Keyboard Shortcuts
Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)
Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)
Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restore the minimized windows)
Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)
Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)
CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)
Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)
Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)
Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)
Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)
Accessibility Keyboard Shortcuts
Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)
Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)
Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)
Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)
Windows Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
END (Display the bottom of the active window)
HOME (Display the top of the active window)
NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)
NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)
NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder)
LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)
RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)
Shortcut Keys for Character Map
After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the keyboard shortcuts:
RIGHT ARROW (Move to the right or to the beginning of the next line)
LEFT ARROW (Move to the left or to the end of the previous line)
UP ARROW (Move up one row)
DOWN ARROW (Move down one row)
PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time)
PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time)
HOME (Move to the beginning of the line)
END (Move to the end of the line)
CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character)
CTRL+END (Move to the last character)
SPACEBAR (Switch between Enlarged and Normal mode when a character is selected)
m*cro$oft Management Console (MMC) Main Window Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+O (Open a saved console)
CTRL+N (Open a new console)
CTRL+S (Save the open console)
CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item)
CTRL+W (Open a new window)
F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the MMC window menu)
ALT+F4 (Close the console)
ALT+A (Display the Action menu)
ALT+V (Display the View menu)
ALT+F (Display the File menu)
ALT+O (Display the Favorites menu)
MMC Console Window Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane)
ALT+Minus sign (-) (Display the window menu for the active console window)
SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)
F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)
F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)
CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)
ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for the selected item)
F2 key (Rename the selected item)
CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)
Remote Desktop Connection Navigation
CTRL+ALT+END (Open the m*cro$oft Windows NT Security dialog box)
ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)
ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)
ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)
ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)
CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)
ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)
CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
m*cro$oft Internet Explorer Navigation
CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)
CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)
CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)
CTRL+H (Open the History bar)
CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)
CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)
CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)
CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box, the same as CTRL+L)
CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)
CTRL+R (Update the current Web page)
CTRL+W (Close the current window)

Labels : DiggIt!  |

SearchEngine Optimization

What is mean by SEO?

Simply SEO means "Search Engine Optimization".

Search engine optimization is the term used to describe the marketing technique of preparing a website to enhance its chances of being ranked in the top results of a search engine once a relevant search is undertaken. A number of factors are important when optimizing a website, including the content and structure of the website's copy and page layout, the HTML meta-tags and the submission process.

i.e. SEO is the process of improving web pages so that it ranks higher in search engine for targeted keywords with the ultimate goal of generating more revenue from the web site. There are many SEO techniques. In general, these techniques can be categorized as On-Page Optimization, On-Site Optimization, and Off-Site Optimization. There are also two schools of SEO: white hat SEO and black hat SEO. White hat SEOs are those that play by the rule (actually guidelines provided by search engines). Black hat SEOs are those that pushes the limit of SEOs and employ some questionable or prohibited techniques (according to the guidelines). These black hat SEO techniques are also commonly known as spam.

Following are some of the SEO tips that help the new comers to get better result.

Optional but very important:
A - Own your-domain-name-dot-com
B - Host your site on a reliable server

1 - Shorten the title to 55 chars
2 - Add the robots tag
3 - Place the robots.txt in your root on your server
4 - Get rid of the js in the code and put it in an external file
5 - Use css instead of color, size and font tags
5 - Change the link buttons or js links in to text links
6 - Make sure to have a site map page
7 - Make sure you have 404 page
8 - At the bottom of each page use menus as text links
9 - Make sure your page code is not bigger than 100 K
10 - Submit your site to ODP, Google and Yahoo Dir, make sure to select the right category
11 - Pay special attention to your content
12 - Try to get as much as relevant links you can
13 - Read each search engines guide lines and follow them strictly
14 - Don't spam
15 - Don't use doorway pages
16 - Don't cloak17 - And pray hard that the big G appreciates all your efforts

Labels : DiggIt!  |

Top 10 HTML Email Mistakes

Following are some of the top mistakes occurs while creating an HTML email.

Mistake #1: Not testing your campaign enough.
Before you send an email out to your entire list, you should have sent at least 4 or 5 tests to yourself, and to all your test accounts. Whenever we send a newsletter, we send about a dozen tests before sending the final version. You should setup as many test accounts with free email providers as possible (like Yahoo!Mail, Hotmail, and Gmail). You might consider setting up accounts with Comcast and AOL, too (AOL accounts can be setup for as low as $4.95, if you call and ask). Leave them in their default settings. Don't tweak any of their junk mail filters, and don't add yourself to their address books. Check that your email isn't spam-filtered, your images aren't broken, each and every hyperlink works, your CSS is displaying properly, and that your unsubscribe link works.

Mistake #1.5: Did we mention not testing enough?
Test, test test! Remember, once you hit send, there's no "undo."

Mistake #2: Trying to send HTML email with Outlook
Lots of people try sending their HTML email newsletters with Microsoft Outlook, or Outlook Express. This is a big mistake. For starters, Outlook won't send your email in "multipart-alternative" format. Multipart format means that an HTML email is sent with a plain-text alternative embedded along with it. That way, if someone's email application can't read HTML email, the plain-text version displays instead. Also, Outlook will send all your images along as attachments, which won't always work. Images in HTML email must be hosted on a web server, and your HTML code should point to them with absolute paths. Add to all that the fact that Outlook won't help you track email clicks and opens, manage unsubscribes, or process and clean bouncebacks from your list. Finally, using your desktop email application to send email marketing campaigns is a bad idea because your ISP may suspend your account after a certain amount of bandwidth has been reached.

Mistake #3: Using JavaScript or ActiveX in HTML email.
Just about every single email application out there blocks JavaScript and ActiveX from working, as a security measure to prevent viruses. Make sure your code doesn't contain any JavaScript or ActiveX, such as on form submit buttons, pop-up window links, image pre-loaders, Flash movies, etc. If you're copying HTML from an existing web page, make sure you clean the code of all JavaScript.

Mistake #4: Embedding CSS in the wrong place.
Linked CSS files won't always work in HTML email, so you've got to use inline or embedded CSS. Normally, when you code a web page, you put the embedded CSS code in between your tags. But lots of email applications (especially browser based ones) strip out the HEAD and BODY tags of your HTML email, so your CSS will get stripped too. Embed your CSS just above the content, below your BODY tag. If you design web pages for a living, that will probably make you feel "dirty" but trust us---it'll work fine in your emails.

Mistake #5: Over-ambitious CSS, and CSS-P.
Don't even try to use CSS positioning. Sorry, but with HTML email, you're still stuck using a lot of tables and shim.gif's (for now). If you're not an HTML coding pro, and you're letting an application generate your HTML email code for you, just be sure to look through the code and check to make sure CSS is done according to our guidelines. While you're checking the code, make sure there's no DHTML, either (that'll break too).

Mistake #6: Writing like a spammer.
We all get spam. You know what it looks like. The subject lines are IN ALL CAPS, letters are highlighted bright red or bright blue, they SCREAM by using lots! of! exclamation! points!!!! and they use phrases like, "viagra, hottest, best, click now! limited time only!, and act now!" Don't be like that. Keep your subject lines brief and to the point. Keep your content relevant. Don't try to use gimmicky catch phrases. Avoid spammy words.

Mistake #7: Forgetting to track clicks and opens.
So many people worry and fuss over their code, that when it's time to finally send their email campaign, they forget to activate click and open tracking!.

Mistake #8: Not including an unsubscribe link.
Never forget to include an opt-out link in your emails. It's the law. In fact, you might place it near the top of your email, so that if people don't get lazy and click their "this is spam" button instead. You'd be surprised how many opt-in recipients click "this is spam" instead of unsubscribing. They either forget they opted in, or they don't trust that your opt-out link will work. Plus, many of them don't realize that the "junk" button "communicates" with and "trains" other spam filters to ignore your emails.

Mistake #9: Sending emails "out of the blue."
Say you've been collecting email addresses through an opt-in form on your website for years, but you've never had the time to send them anything. One day, you finally find the time to code your beautiful email newsletter, and you're ready to "blast it out to your list." Don't do it. If this is your very first email campaign, and these people haven't heard from you via email before, you need to send a quick "warmup" or "re-invite" campaign, to tell recipients, "We're really excited about our new monthly e-letter, and we just wanted to confirm your email address before we start sending. Click here to subscribe." If people haven't heard from you in years, and you suddenly start sending them emails, they've probably forgotten who you are, nevermind that they opted in. To avoid getting reported for spamming, send a preliminary warmup email to "cold lists" to re-confirm their permission.

Mistake #10: Not using full paths in your images and hyperlinks.
With HTML email, you need to host all your images on your server, then use absolute paths that point back to your server.

More Reference :

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10 Usability Principles of web design

1. Motivate
Design your site to meet specific user needs and goals. Use motivators to draw different user "personae" into specific parts of your site.
2. User task flow
Who are your users? What are their tasks and online environment? For a site to be usable, page flow must match workflow.
3. Architecture – it's 80% of usability
Build an efficient navigational structure. Remember – if they can't find it in 3 clicks, they're gone.
4. Affordance means obvious
Make controls understandable. Avoid confusion between emblems, banners, and buttons.
5. Replicate
Why reinvent the wheel? Use ergonomically designed templates for the most common 8-12 pages.
6. Usability test along the way
Test early in design using low-fidelity prototypes. Don't wait until the end when it's too late.Know the technology limitations Identify and optimize for target browsers and user hardware. Test HTML, JavaScript, etc. for compatibility.
7. Know the technology limitations
Identify and optimize for target browsers and user hardware.Test HTML, JavaScript, etc for compatibility.
8. Know user tolerances
Users are impatient. Design for a 2-10 second maximum download. Reuse header graphics so they can load from cache. Avoid excessive scrolling.
9. Multimedia – be discriminating
Good animation attracts attention to specific information, then stops. Too much movement distracts, slowing reading and comprehension.
10. Use a stats package
Monitor traffic through your site. Which pages pique user interest? Which pages make users leave? Adjust your site accordingly.

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